Encouraging extensive reading to advance intensive reading

by Anna Hasper in Blog

Encouraging extensive reading to advance intensive reading

Introduction

Growing up I was the sibling who was often ‘missing in action,’ hidden away in a corner of the house reading. For as long as I can remember reading has always been something I have loved, in English but also in other languages. It feels like an escape from reality, like being submerged in my own world. However, teaching has made me come to realise that many learners have a totally different experience of reading …


Reading and the brain

Interestingly, our brains are not hardwired for reading nor writing, they are made for listening and speaking. For our brain to understand a text, various complex processes need to be activated simultaneously. Emergent readers need to develop phonological awareness and decoding skills. However, this is not enough as Willingham (2017) highlights, readers also need vocabulary knowledge and cognitive processes such as using prior knowledge and making connections to enable the brain to make meaning of a text. And all this needs to be coordinated at an effective pace so the brain can keep up! No surprise really that beginners can get demotivated.

The best way to improve one’s language skills is to go and live amongst its speakers, but the next best way is to read extensively in it.

C. Nuttall, 2005


Extensive reading

The only way to make reading less challenging and make comprehension easier is through developing automaticity of the processes involved and this happens through reading, a lot of reading. Whereas reading intensively in class is invaluable to develop learners’ reading sub-skills and language, it is not enough to become a fluent reader. Extensive reading, where learners read relatively easy texts of their own choice, complements their reading development: it increases their reading mileage which in the long term aids comprehension.

Creating a culture of reading also helps the brain focus and improve learners’ concentration. Research has also shown that reading makes people more empathic; being able to understand and share the feelings of others. Another key benefit is that reading can reduce stress levels: according to research by the University of Sussex reading for even six minutes can reduce stress levels by as much as 68%. Enough reasons to take up extensive reading, right? However, the key to extensive reading is that learners are reading for pleasure. So, how can we get reluctant readers to embark on this journey?

Of course, we can spell out the linguistic and cognitive advantages of reading, but it doesn’t seem to engage most learners. Trying to get them curious might work better so I often use one question to introduce extensive reading programs: ‘I think reading is like running, what do you think?’. Students can get emotionally engaged in the discussion, which is exactly what we need because without emotional engagement very little learning will happen (Reyes et al., 2012).


Running and extensive reading?

So why do I believe that reading is like running? Well, running isn’t easy in the beginning. When you start it hurts, it makes you tired but the more you run the more your muscles get used to it. The same with reading which is hard work at the start but the more you read, the more automatic the processes become and the easier you make it which is key to enjoying reading.  Tell your learners this as they might think they are odd because they find reading effortful, but it was too for us at the start!


Take it step by step

When starting an extensive reading programme, take it slow. Learners, and in particular those who are not keen on reading in their L1, need to build concentration skills, reading stamina and the willpower to pick up a text and read.

  1. Even though extensive reading is often done at home, start off in class to lay a solid foundation that enables learners to become independent readers beyond the classroom. If possible, give it 15-20 minutes two or three times a week.
  2. Allow learners to select a short text to start with as these might feel less intimidating. Blogs, magazines, short articles, etc., it doesn’t really matter as long as learners are reading with pleasure. Remember, you don’t run long distances straight away, it takes time!
  3. Extensive reading is supposed to be self-directed but to ensure learners do not get frustrated straight away, guide your learners with choosing level appropriate texts. Make sure they select a text of interest and help them check the vocabulary; if out of every 100 words four words or more are unknown it will become a demotivating experience. Get them to read a page, about 100 words, and count the unknown words. If there are two or three out of 100 the vocabulary should not hinder their reading pleasure. Graded readers are helpful to ensure they start with achievable texts.

Some other useful sites are:

www.newsela.com

https://learningenglish.voanews.com

http://www.gutenberg.org/

www.theconversation.com

https://readoasis.com/

https://www.er-central.com/


Buddy up!

When I started, running alone felt daunting but having an experienced friend to run with helped me better manage my pace which kept me going. Although classroom activities in which learners talk about their books are not rare, extensive reading is often viewed as a solitary task but learners sharing ideas together could provide motivation and help maintain interest in reading.

Oral language, talk, plays a central role in learning; in learning how to think and in talking your way into meaning.    

Cameron & Dempsey, 2016

  1. Allowing learners to talk to each other during an extensive reading session, a short pre-reading chat about what they have been reading so far or what they think will happen next, might enhance engagement.
  2. Create opportunities for collaboration and discussion in your course. If you have learners that are reading the same graded reader they could be reading buddies and support each other. At lower levels this can make extensive reading more manageable.
  • Reading buddies- learners read the same book and can ask each other for clarification if needed or they can shadow read (one student reads aloud, the other reads along and then they swap roles).
  • Book talks- readers of different books share their answers on given questions before or after reading: Who’s the main character? What are the main events? Where/When does the story take place? What’s your feeling about the book?, etc.
  • Book Fairs- learners select their favourite text and in small groups present the story with the aim of convincing others to read it. (Preparation could include using digital technology.)
  • Timed TPS (Think-pair-share)- a quick activity before or after reading. Get learners to pair up, decide who is A and who is B. The teacher asks a question and A answers for one minute whilst B just listens. After one minute, B answers and A listens. Then they can both talk to compare ideas and ask each other follow-up questions.

Check-in regularly

When you are running with a buddy, you regularly check-in on each other to see how you are feeling. When conducting extensive reading, we need to check-in on how learners are doing in particular when they are new to reading extensively. This is much easier when you plan in time for extensive reading during your regular classes.

However, monitoring is regarded as somewhat controversial because extensive reading is seen as reading for pleasure. But as mentioned before, talking about reading can be authentic and showing an interest in learners’ reading enhances motivation, whilst it also enables you to trace learners' developing reading habits and find out about their challenges.

  1. Regular informal chats with learners can play a key role in motivating them to keep reading. Show an interest in the chosen text, ask them how they are feeling about their reading. What sort of genre they enjoy and if they would recommend you to read it? Tell them what you are reading; share your experiences.
  2. Observe their body language when they read silently or talk about books. Are they smiling or looking miserable? Are the slouching or actively talking to their buddies? This can give you clues about who you need to check-in with.
  3. Making learners more accountable and gaining some insight into their performance follow-up tasks, on paper or digitally, can be useful. Learners can:
  • select their favourite part and write a paragraph explaining what happens in that section of the book;
  • write/record a comparison with another book;
  • draw a visual story-script;
  • create a page gallery;
  • write a one-minute presentation;
  • complete a one-sentence summary;
  • create a picture story;
  • write a book review.

A word of warning: checking-in should not be regarded as a form of assessment, but more as a way to figure out if there is anything they need from you to be better enabled to enjoy their reading journey.


Let them own it!

When you start running you might have a coach whose role is to help you find your feet. Our role in the process is to support our learners with the ultimate aim of enabling them to be self-directed when reading.

  1. Follow a gradual release model; initially start in class, overtime decrease the frequency and extensive reading time in class with the expectation that learners increase their reading time at home.
  2. At the start guide them closely with text choices but the aim ultimately is to hand over and get them to choose texts of interest at the right level. Learners deciding also highlights that reading is a personal experience that doesn’t need to be dictated by a teacher (Bamford and Day, 2004). Give them choice in text types (magazines, blogs, newspaper articles, short stories, etc.) as well as in delivery methods; read an old-fashioned paperback or read on screen and for lower level readers combine it with listening to the text. By giving learners choices we give them a sense of empowerment which can help develop more motivated learners.

Keep going!

To get enjoyment from running you will have to put up with the pain first and run your miles which takes time! The same for reading fluency, the more you read the less effort it will take and the more enjoyable it becomes. In order to develop that reading power, learners need to read, read and, ... read! Plan for extensive reading two or three times a week in class, even if it is only for 10-15 minutes and tell learners to keep going as their practice will pay off in the long run. It might not be perfect, but it will make the cognitive processes involved permanent which is what it is all about!


Final Thoughts

It is widely believed that we become good readers through reading and without a doubt, the best way to become better at reading is through reading! However, only extensive reading is not enough, nor is only intensive reading in the classroom. We need to provide our learners with a balanced-diet and provide them with plenty of reading opportunities both inside and outside the classroom. Think about reading like running; finding rhythm, pace and routines that work take time, like becoming a marathon runner, and that is fine!


References

  • https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/5070874/Reading-can-help-reduce-stress.html
  • Cameron S., & Dempsey, L. (2016). The oral language book. S&L Publishing
  • Krashen, S.D., (2004). The Power of Reading: insights from the research, Krashen
  • Nuttall, C.E., (2005). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Heinemann
  • Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012, March 5)
  • Classroom Emotional Climate, Student Engagement, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0027268
  • Willingham. D., (2017). The reading mind. Jossey-Bass

About the author

Anna Hasper is an educational consultant and learning & teacher development specialist based in Dubai. She has worked in education for over 18 years in a wide variety of contexts with the British Council, International House, IDP IELTS and various universities. She holds an MEd in Applied Linguistics, an MA in Public Administration as well as a PGCE (primary), CELTA and DELTA. Her special interest is teacher education, particularly the areas of educational psychology, effective learning and empowering teachers in low resource contexts. Her work includes materials development, course writing, teacher training, educational reform and developing bespoke professional learning programmes. She’s a CELTA trainer & assessor with in-depth experience of training teachers in challenging context worldwide. Anna regularly delivers professional learning and development for teachers in private and public sectors, both face to face and online.

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